A novel circuit in the mammalian retina.


A schematic of the retina showing the types of outer retinal dendrites (ORDs) from M1 and displaced M1 melanopsin ganglion cells. These ganglion cells defy the conventional photoreceptor to bipolar cell to ganglion cell pathway by potentially connecting directly with cone photoreceptors.




Examples of neurons with outer retinal dendrites (ORDs) during development. ORDs stratify closely to cone photoreceptors, suggesting a direct cone to ganglion cell circuit.









These potential ganglion cell to cone photoreceptor circuits are asymmetrically distributed to the ventral half of the retina, where s-cone photoreceptors are in highest concentration.








 The earliest outer-retinal light responses observed in a rodent.


Observed and recorded cone responses in mice at postnatal day 8.












 A novel map of the mouse eye in relation to environment/navigation.


Illustrates how a mouse holds its head when navigating the environment and the way in which important features of the mouse eye and retina relate to both its head position and the horizon. This enriches our understanding of how to externally identify internal landmarks of the eye.